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教育部就《关于推动现代职业教育高质量发展的意见》答记者问

发稿(gao):教育部(bu) 审核人:发布时间(jian):2021-10-14点击数: 关闭

据教(jiao)育部网站消息,日前,中共(gong)中央办公厅(ting)、国务(wu)院办公厅(ting)印发了《关(guan)(guan)于推动现代(dai)职(zhi)业教(jiao)育高质量发展的意(yi)见》(以下简称意(yi)见),教(jiao)育部有(you)关(guan)(guan)负责人就《意(yi)见》有(you)关(guan)(guan)问题回答(da)了记者提问。

问:请介绍一下《意见》出台的背景和过程。

答:今年4月,全国职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)大会召开。习近(jin)平总书(shu)记对职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)工(gong)作作出(chu)重要指示,强调(diao)加(jia)快构(gou)建现(xian)代职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)体(ti)系,培养更(geng)多高(gao)素(su)质(zhi)技术技能(neng)人才、能(neng)工(gong)巧匠(jiang)、大国工(gong)匠(jiang)。李克强总理(li)作出(chu)批示,孙春兰副总理(li)出(chu)席并(bing)发(fa)(fa)表讲话。大会的召开,充分体(ti)现(xian)了以习近(jin)平同志为核心的党(dang)中央对职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)的高(gao)度重视,必将有力推动职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)高(gao)质(zhi)量发(fa)(fa)展,为全面建设(she)社会主义现(xian)代化国家(jia)提供(gong)坚实的人才和技能(neng)支撑(cheng)。

《意(yi)见(jian)(jian)》是(shi)贯(guan)彻落实全国职业(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育大(da)会(hui)精神的配套文(wen)(wen)件。《意(yi)见(jian)(jian)》起草过程中(zhong),开展(zhan)了(le)(le)扎实的文(wen)(wen)献研(yan)究、专题研(yan)究、深度访谈(tan)、实地调研(yan),听取了(le)(le)教(jiao)(jiao)育行(xing)政(zheng)管理人员、职业(ye)院校(xiao)负责人、师生和专家意(yi)见(jian)(jian)建议(yi),形成《意(yi)见(jian)(jian)》初稿后,征求了(le)(le)有关部(bu)门意(yi)见(jian)(jian)。2021年4月,提(ti)交(jiao)全国职业(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育大(da)会(hui)讨论。会(hui)后,结合大(da)会(hui)精神和会(hui)议(yi)分组讨论反馈意(yi)见(jian)(jian)建议(yi),作了(le)(le)进一步修改(gai)完(wan)善。

问:请介绍一下《意见》的基本定位和考虑。

答(da):《意见》主要围(wei)绕贯彻落(luo)实习近平总书(shu)记(ji)重(zhong)要指示和(he)全国职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)大(da)会精神,定(ding)位(wei)(wei)于破除(chu)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)改革发(fa)展的(de)(de)深层次体制机制障碍,推动(dong)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)高质(zhi)量发(fa)展。一(yi)是巩固职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)类(lei)型定(ding)位(wei)(wei)。习近平总书(shu)记(ji)强(qiang)(qiang)调要优化(hua)(hua)(hua)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)类(lei)型定(ding)位(wei)(wei)。《意见》把类(lei)型定(ding)位(wei)(wei)作为谋(mou)划(hua)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)工作的(de)(de)逻辑起点,予以巩固和(he)优化(hua)(hua)(hua)。二是构建(jian)现代职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)体系(xi)。聚焦高质(zhi)量发(fa)展,树立系(xi)统(tong)观念,强(qiang)(qiang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)中等(deng)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)的(de)(de)基(ji)础地位(wei)(wei),高质(zhi)量发(fa)展职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)高等(deng)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu),稳步(bu)发(fa)展职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)本科教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)。三是服务技(ji)能(neng)(neng)型社(she)会建(jian)设。要求通过加快建(jian)设国家重(zhong)视(shi)技(ji)能(neng)(neng)、社(she)会崇尚技(ji)能(neng)(neng)、人(ren)人(ren)享有(you)技(ji)能(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)技(ji)能(neng)(neng)型社(she)会,激励更多劳动(dong)者(zhe)特别是青(qing)年一(yi)代走技(ji)能(neng)(neng)成才(cai)、技(ji)能(neng)(neng)报国之路。

问:请介绍一下《意见》的研制思路。

答:《意(yi)(yi)见(jian)》牢(lao)牢(lao)把握职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)与普通(tong)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)“不同类型(xing)、同等重要(yao)”,在研(yan)究(jiu)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)规(gui)律(lv)、产业(ye)规(gui)律(lv)和(he)(he)(he)(he)技术(shu)技能人(ren)才成长规(gui)律(lv)基(ji)础上,着力(li)使(shi)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)真(zhen)正成为一种需求(qiu)广泛、功(gong)能特(te)定的(de)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)类型(xing)。《意(yi)(yi)见(jian)》通(tong)过(guo)系(xi)统总结“职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)20条(tiao)”以来的(de)改革(ge)经验,分析应该(gai)(gai)坚(jian)持和(he)(he)(he)(he)巩(gong)固(gu)什(shen)么,探究(jiu)应该(gai)(gai)完(wan)善和(he)(he)(he)(he)发展(zhan)(zhan)什(shen)么,既坚(jian)持过(guo)去行之(zhi)有(you)效(xiao)的(de)政(zheng)策(ce)举措(cuo),更向改革(ge)创新要(yao)动力(li),使(shi)中国(guo)特(te)色现(xian)代职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)体系(xi)充分展(zhan)(zhan)示出强(qiang)大的(de)自我完(wan)善能力(li)和(he)(he)(he)(he)更为旺盛的(de)生机活力(li)。同时,对接(jie)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)强(qiang)国(guo)建设(she)和(he)(he)(he)(he)《中国(guo)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)现(xian)代化2035》对职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)发展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)目标要(yao)求(qiu),聚焦产教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)关(guan)系(xi)、校(xiao)企关(guan)系(xi)、师(shi)生关(guan)系(xi)、中外关(guan)系(xi),切实增强(qiang)政(zheng)策(ce)举措(cuo)的(de)针(zhen)对性、可(ke)行性和(he)(he)(he)(he)有(you)效(xiao)性,通(tong)过(guo)统筹顶层设(she)计和(he)(he)(he)(he)分层对接(jie)、统筹制度改革(ge)和(he)(he)(he)(he)制度运行,着力(li)固(gu)根(gen)基(ji)、补短板、提质量(liang),大幅提升职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)现(xian)代化水平和(he)(he)(he)(he)服务能力(li)。

问:请问《意见》的主要内容是什么?

答(da):《意见》全文共7个部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)22条。第(di)(di)一部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)“总体(ti)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)”。以(yi)习近平(ping)新(xin)时(shi)代中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)特(te)(te)色社会(hui)主(zhu)义思想为指导(dao),明(ming)确坚(jian)持(chi)立德树人、德技并修,坚(jian)持(chi)产(chan)教(jiao)融(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)、校(xiao)企合(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo),坚(jian)持(chi)面向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)市场(chang)、促进(jin)(jin)(jin)就(jiu)业(ye)(ye)(ye),坚(jian)持(chi)面向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)实(shi)践、强(qiang)化能力,坚(jian)持(chi)面向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)人人、因材(cai)(cai)施教(jiao)等(deng)工作(zuo)(zuo)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)以(yi)及(ji)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)目标。第(di)(di)二部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)“强(qiang)化职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育类(lei)型(xing)特(te)(te)色”。通(tong)过推(tui)动(dong)(dong)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)层次(ci)职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育纵向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)贯通(tong),促进(jin)(jin)(jin)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)类(lei)型(xing)教(jiao)育横向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)融(rong)(rong)通(tong),健(jian)全职(zhi)普并行(xing)、纵向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)贯通(tong)、横向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)融(rong)(rong)通(tong)的(de)(de)培养体(ti)系(xi),强(qiang)化职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育的(de)(de)类(lei)型(xing)特(te)(te)色。第(di)(di)三部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)“完(wan)(wan)善产(chan)教(jiao)融(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)办(ban)(ban)(ban)学(xue)体(ti)制”。围绕加强(qiang)职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育供给(ji)与产(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)需求(qiu)对接,以(yi)市场(chang)需求(qiu)为导(dao)向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang),动(dong)(dong)态调(diao)整职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育的(de)(de)层次(ci)结构(gou)和(he)专业(ye)(ye)(ye)结构(gou),健(jian)全多元办(ban)(ban)(ban)学(xue)格局(ju),协(xie)同(tong)(tong)推(tui)进(jin)(jin)(jin)产(chan)教(jiao)深度(du)融(rong)(rong)合(he)(he)。第(di)(di)四部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)“创(chuang)新(xin)校(xiao)企合(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)办(ban)(ban)(ban)学(xue)机制”。坚(jian)持(chi)校(xiao)企合(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)基(ji)本(ben)办(ban)(ban)(ban)学(xue)模式,通(tong)过不(bu)(bu)断丰富职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)学(xue)校(xiao)办(ban)(ban)(ban)学(xue)形态、拓展(zhan)校(xiao)企合(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)形式内(nei)容(rong)、优化政策环(huan)境,创(chuang)新(xin)组织形式和(he)运行(xing)机制,形成校(xiao)企命运共同(tong)(tong)体(ti)。第(di)(di)五部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)“深化教(jiao)育教(jiao)学(xue)改革”。通(tong)过强(qiang)化双师(shi)(shi)型(xing)教(jiao)师(shi)(shi)队(dui)伍建(jian)(jian)设、创(chuang)新(xin)教(jiao)学(xue)模式与方法、改进(jin)(jin)(jin)教(jiao)学(xue)内(nei)容(rong)与教(jiao)材(cai)(cai)、完(wan)(wan)善质量保(bao)证(zheng)体(ti)系(xi),构(gou)建(jian)(jian)新(xin)型(xing)师(shi)(shi)生关(guan)系(xi),强(qiang)化德技并修、工学(xue)结合(he)(he)。第(di)(di)六部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)“打造(zao)(zao)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)特(te)(te)色职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育品牌”。坚(jian)持(chi)扎根(gen)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)、融(rong)(rong)通(tong)中(zhong)外(wai),通(tong)过提升中(zhong)外(wai)合(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)办(ban)(ban)(ban)学(xue)水平(ping)、拓展(zhan)中(zhong)外(wai)合(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)交(jiao)流平(ping)台、推(tui)动(dong)(dong)职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育走出去,增强(qiang)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)话语权,讲好(hao)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)故(gu)事、贡(gong)献中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)智慧(hui)。第(di)(di)七部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)“组织实(shi)施”。要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)发挥各级(ji)党委总揽全局(ju)、协(xie)调(diao)各方的(de)(de)领导(dao)核心作(zuo)(zuo)用,强(qiang)化制度(du)和(he)经费保(bao)障、营造(zao)(zao)良好(hao)氛围,确保(bao)工作(zuo)(zuo)实(shi)效。

问:如何强化职业教育类型特色?

答:特色(se)决(jue)定生命(ming)力(li)。《意见》提出,从巩(gong)固职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)类型定位、推(tui)进(jin)不同层(ceng)次职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)纵向贯通(tong)(tong)(tong)、促(cu)进(jin)不同类型教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)横向融通(tong)(tong)(tong)三个(ge)方(fang)面强(qiang)(qiang)化(hua)(hua)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)类型特色(se)。一(yi)是(shi)要(yao)(yao)因(yin)地制宜、统(tong)筹推(tui)进(jin)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)与(yu)(yu)普通(tong)(tong)(tong)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)协调发展(zhan),加快(kuai)建立“职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)考”制度,完善“文(wen)化(hua)(hua)素质(zhi)+职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)技能”考试(shi)招生办法,加强(qiang)(qiang)省级(ji)统(tong)筹,加强(qiang)(qiang)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)理论研(yan)究。二是(shi)要(yao)(yao)大(da)力(li)提升中(zhong)等(deng)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)办学(xue)质(zhi)量,推(tui)进(jin)高(gao)等(deng)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)提质(zhi)培(pei)优(you),稳步发展(zhan)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)本(ben)科(ke)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu),一(yi)体(ti)化(hua)(hua)设计职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)人(ren)才(cai)培(pei)养体(ti)系,推(tui)动各层(ceng)次职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)专业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)设置、培(pei)养目标(biao)、课程体(ti)系、培(pei)养方(fang)案衔接。三是(shi)要(yao)(yao)加强(qiang)(qiang)各学(xue)段(duan)普通(tong)(tong)(tong)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)与(yu)(yu)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)渗透融通(tong)(tong)(tong),在普通(tong)(tong)(tong)中(zhong)小(xiao)学(xue)实施职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)启蒙教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu),推(tui)动中(zhong)等(deng)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)学(xue)校与(yu)(yu)普通(tong)(tong)(tong)高(gao)中(zhong)、高(gao)等(deng)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)学(xue)校与(yu)(yu)应用(yong)型大(da)学(xue)课程互选、学(xue)分互认。制定国(guo)家资历框架,加快(kuai)构建服务(wu)全民(min)终身(shen)学(xue)习(xi)的教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)体(ti)系。

问:请问如何深化产教融合?

答(da):深(shen)化(hua)(hua)产(chan)(chan)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)融合(he)对于全面(mian)提高职(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)质量(liang)、扩(kuo)大就业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)创业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)、促进(jin)经济(ji)转(zhuan)型(xing)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)、培育(yu)(yu)(yu)经济(ji)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)新(xin)动能(neng)具有(you)重要意义。要主动适应经济(ji)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)新(xin)形势和技术(shu)技能(neng)人才(cai)成长(zhang)成才(cai)新(xin)需求(qiu),完善产(chan)(chan)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)融合(he)、协(xie)同育(yu)(yu)(yu)人机制(zhi)。《意见(jian)》从(cong)三个方面(mian)提出完善产(chan)(chan)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)融合(he)办(ban)学体(ti)制(zhi)的(de)举(ju)措。一是(shi)优化(hua)(hua)职(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)供给结构。推动形成紧密对接产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)链、创新(xin)链的(de)专业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)体(ti)系,推进(jin)部(bu)省共建职(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)创新(xin)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)高地,持续深(shen)化(hua)(hua)职(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)东西部(bu)协(xie)作,启动实施技能(neng)型(xing)社(she)会(hui)职(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)体(ti)系建设(she)(she)地方试点。二是(shi)构建政(zheng)府(fu)统(tong)筹管(guan)理、行业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)积极举(ju)办(ban)、社(she)会(hui)力量(liang)深(shen)度参与(yu)的(de)多元办(ban)学格局。健全国有(you)资产(chan)(chan)评估、产(chan)(chan)权(quan)流转(zhuan)、权(quan)益分配、干部(bu)人事管(guan)理等制(zhi)度,鼓励(li)各(ge)类企业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)依法(fa)参与(yu)举(ju)办(ban)职(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu),鼓励(li)职(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)学校与(yu)社(she)会(hui)资本(ben)合(he)作共建职(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)基础设(she)(she)施、实训基地。三是(shi)协(xie)同推进(jin)产(chan)(chan)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)深(shen)度融合(he)。各(ge)级政(zheng)府(fu)要将产(chan)(chan)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)融合(he)列入经济(ji)社(she)会(hui)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)规划。建设(she)(she)一批产(chan)(chan)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)融合(he)试点城(cheng)市(shi),打(da)造一批引(yin)领产(chan)(chan)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)融合(he)的(de)标杆行业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye),培育(yu)(yu)(yu)一批行业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)领先(xian)的(de)产(chan)(chan)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)融合(he)型(xing)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)。

问:请问如何推进职业本科教育稳步发展?

答:《意见》提出稳步(bu)发展(zhan)(zhan)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)本(ben)(ben)科(ke)(ke)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu),高(gao)(gao)标准(zhun)建(jian)设(she)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)本(ben)(ben)科(ke)(ke)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)和(he)(he)专(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)。职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)本(ben)(ben)科(ke)(ke)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)正处(chu)在起(qi)步(bu)的(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)键阶段(duan),必(bi)须坚(jian)(jian)持稳步(bu)发展(zhan)(zhan),把(ba)(ba)握(wo)好(hao)发展(zhan)(zhan)节奏。下一(yi)(yi)步(bu),亚博手机(ji)版网址将(jiang)按照“高(gao)(gao)起(qi)点(dian)、高(gao)(gao)标准(zhun)、高(gao)(gao)质量”的(de)(de)(de)总要(yao)求(qiu),逐步(bu)完善学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)和(he)(he)专(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)设(she)置(zhi)标准(zhun)、专(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)目录、学(xue)(xue)(xue)位(wei)授予及评价机(ji)制等,引导学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)坚(jian)(jian)持职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)属性,遵循职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)规(gui)律(lv)办(ban)(ban)学(xue)(xue)(xue),重(zhong)点(dian)把(ba)(ba)握(wo)好(hao)三对(dui)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)。一(yi)(yi)是把(ba)(ba)握(wo)好(hao)速度与(yu)质量的(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)。一(yi)(yi)方(fang)(fang)面要(yao)强化(hua)(hua)(hua)顶层设(she)计,将(jiang)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)本(ben)(ben)科(ke)(ke)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)纳入教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)事业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)整体(ti)规(gui)划(hua),明(ming)确定(ding)位(wei)、清晰路(lu)径、有序(xu)发展(zhan)(zhan);另(ling)一(yi)(yi)方(fang)(fang)面落实职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)本(ben)(ben)科(ke)(ke)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)和(he)(he)专(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)设(she)置(zhi)标准(zhun),严格(ge)依(yi)规(gui)依(yi)标、把(ba)(ba)好(hao)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)设(she)置(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)第一(yi)(yi)关(guan)(guan),推(tui)进试点(dian),提升现有职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)本(ben)(ben)科(ke)(ke)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)办(ban)(ban)学(xue)(xue)(xue)质量,打造示(shi)范,遴选优(you)质高(gao)(gao)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)举办(ban)(ban)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)本(ben)(ben)科(ke)(ke)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu),形成(cheng)一(yi)(yi)批可复(fu)(fu)制、可推(tui)广的(de)(de)(de)经验模(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),切实做到稳中求(qiu)质。二是把(ba)(ba)握(wo)好(hao)规(gui)模(mo)与(yu)效益(yi)的(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)。有序(xu)合(he)(he)理扩大职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)本(ben)(ben)科(ke)(ke)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)规(gui)模(mo),对(dui)于职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)优(you)化(hua)(hua)(hua)体(ti)系(xi)(xi)(xi)结构、补齐发展(zhan)(zhan)短(duan)板(ban)至关(guan)(guan)重(zhong)要(yao)。但与(yu)此同(tong)时(shi),要(yao)避免低水平重(zhong)复(fu)(fu)建(jian)设(she),摆脱传统的(de)(de)(de)靠规(gui)模(mo)上(shang)效益(yi)的(de)(de)(de)思维定(ding)式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)和(he)(he)路(lu)径依(yi)赖。职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)本(ben)(ben)科(ke)(ke)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)和(he)(he)专(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)优(you)先在高(gao)(gao)端产(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)亟需领域、新(xin)(xin)技(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)革(ge)命领域布局,优(you)化(hua)(hua)(hua)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)人(ren)才供给和(he)(he)产(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)人(ren)才需求(qiu)匹配度。三是把(ba)(ba)握(wo)好(hao)守正与(yu)创新(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)。“守正”就(jiu)是要(yao)坚(jian)(jian)持职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)类(lei)型(xing)定(ding)位(wei),遵循职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)办(ban)(ban)学(xue)(xue)(xue)规(gui)律(lv);“创新(xin)(xin)”就(jiu)是要(yao)率先推(tui)进育(yu)人(ren)方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)、办(ban)(ban)学(xue)(xue)(xue)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)、管理体(ti)制、保(bao)障机(ji)制改(gai)革(ge),发挥引领作(zuo)用。一(yi)(yi)方(fang)(fang)面,坚(jian)(jian)持产(chan)教(jiao)(jiao)融合(he)(he)、校(xiao)(xiao)企合(he)(he)作(zuo)、工(gong)学(xue)(xue)(xue)结合(he)(he)、知行合(he)(he)一(yi)(yi)的(de)(de)(de)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)办(ban)(ban)学(xue)(xue)(xue)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)和(he)(he)育(yu)人(ren)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)不动摇(yao),并不断强化(hua)(hua)(hua)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)类(lei)型(xing)特色。另(ling)一(yi)(yi)方(fang)(fang)面,坚(jian)(jian)持以人(ren)才培(pei)(pei)养(yang)质量为核心,带动专(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)、课(ke)程、师资、条件和(he)(he)文(wen)化(hua)(hua)(hua)建(jian)设(she),推(tui)动形成(cheng)高(gao)(gao)水平技(ji)(ji)术(shu)(shu)技(ji)(ji)能人(ren)才培(pei)(pei)养(yang)体(ti)系(xi)(xi)(xi)。

问:怎样落实《意见》推动现代职业教育高质量发展?

答:为确保(bao)《意见》落(luo)实落(luo)地(di),推(tui)动(dong)现代职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育(yu)高质(zhi)量发(fa)(fa)(fa)展,一是(shi)要(yao)加强(qiang)(qiang)组(zu)织领导。各级党委和(he)政府要(yao)把(ba)推(tui)动(dong)现代职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育(yu)高质(zhi)量发(fa)(fa)(fa)展摆在更(geng)加突(tu)出的(de)位置,更(geng)好支持和(he)帮助职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育(yu)发(fa)(fa)(fa)展。职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育(yu)工(gong)作部门联席(xi)会议要(yao)充分(fen)发(fa)(fa)(fa)挥作用。国家将(jiang)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育(yu)工(gong)作纳入省级政府履行教(jiao)育(yu)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)责督导评价。各省将(jiang)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育(yu)工(gong)作纳入地(di)方(fang)经(jing)济社会发(fa)(fa)(fa)展考核。二是(shi)要(yao)强(qiang)(qiang)化制度(du)保(bao)障(zhang)。加快修订职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育(yu)法(fa),地(di)方(fang)结合实际制定修订有关(guan)地(di)方(fang)性法(fa)规。新增(zeng)教(jiao)育(yu)经(jing)费向(xiang)职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)教(jiao)育(yu)倾斜。严禁以学(xue)费、社会服务收入冲抵(di)生均拨款。三是(shi)要(yao)优(you)化发(fa)(fa)(fa)展环境。加强(qiang)(qiang)正面宣传,弘扬劳动(dong)光荣、技能宝贵、创造伟大的(de)时代风(feng)尚。打通职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)(ye)学(xue)校(xiao)毕业(ye)(ye)生在就业(ye)(ye)、落(luo)户(hu)、参(can)加招(zhao)聘、职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)称评审、晋升(sheng)等(deng)方(fang)面的(de)通道,与普通学(xue)校(xiao)毕业(ye)(ye)生享受同(tong)等(deng)待遇。加大技术(shu)技能人才(cai)激励力度(du),提高技术(shu)技能人才(cai)社会地(di)位。